Résumé : Identification and quality control of products of natural origin, used for preventive and therapeutical goals, is required by regulating authorities, as the World Health Organization. This study focuses on the identification and distinction of the rhizomes from two Chinese herbs, rhizoma Chuanxiong (from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.) and rhizoma Ligustici (from Ligusticum jeholense Nakai et Kitag), by chromatographic fingerprints. A second goal is using the fingerprints to assay ferulic acid, as its concentration provides an additional differentiation feature. Several extraction methods were tested, to obtain the highest number of peaks in the fingerprints. The best results were found using 76:19:5 (v/v/v) methanol/water/formic acid as solvent and extracting the pulverized material on a shaking bath for 15 min. Then fingerprint optimization was done. Most information about the herbs, i.e. the highest number of peaks, was observed on a Hypersil ODS column (250 mm × 4.6 mm ID, 5 μm), 1.0% acetic acid in the mobile phase and employing within 50 min linear gradient elution from 5:95 (v/v) to 95:5 (v/v) acetonitrile/water. The final fingerprints were able to distinguish rhizoma Chuanxiong and Ligustici, based on correlation coefficients combined with exploratory data analysis. The distinction was visualized using Principal Component Analysis, Projection Pursuit and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis techniques. Quantification of ferulic acid was possible in the fingerprints of both rhizomes. The time-different intermediate precisions of the fingerprints and of the ferulic acid quantification were shown to be acceptable.