Résumé : BACKGROUND. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is considered to be a precursor of prostate carcinoma in which serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) have been correlated with PIN grades. The aim of this study was to determine whether PSA and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), obtained at the time of initial diagnosis of PIN without concurrent carcinoma, can be used as predictive factors to discriminate patients with subsequent cancer on repeat biopsy. METHODS. We studied, retrospectively, the records of 93 patients with PIN (low and high grade) without concurrent carcinoma at the time of their first needle biopsy. We assessed the relationship between initial PIN grade, PSA, and PSAD with later detection of carcinoma on repeat biopsy. Patients were divided into 3 subgroups for analysis according to their initial PSA level (0-4, 4.1-10, >10 ng/mL). RESULTS. Carcinoma detection rate on repeat biopsy was 13.3% for patients with low grade PIN and 47.7% for patients with high grade PIN (P < 0.006). High grade PIN was frequently associated with subsequent carcinoma whatever the PSA level (33.3-61.9%). Low grade PIN was associated with subsequent carcinoma in 42.8% of the cases when PSA was greater than 10 ng/mL. When PSA was between 4 and 10 ng/mL, low grade PIN carcinoma was found on repeat biopsies in only 10.7% of the cases (P = 0.05). In none of the PSA subgroups did PSAD enhance later cancer detection. CONCLUSIONS. For patients with high grade PIN, the incidence of subsequent carcinoma is high, whatever the PSA values. For these cases repeat biopsies should be recommended. Patients with low grade PIN and PSA greater than 10 ng/mL should have repeat biopsies because the incidence of subsequent carcinoma is high and comparable to high grade PIN. PSAD did not provide additional information. © 1996 American Cancer Society.