Résumé : Several evidences suggest that regulatory T cells (Treg) promote Th17 differentiation. Based on this hypothesis, we tested the effect of IL-17A neutralization in a model of skin transplantation in which long-term graft survival depends on a strong in vivo Treg expansion induced by transient exogenous IL-2 administration. As expected, IL-2 supplementation prevented rejection of MHC class II disparate skin allografts but, surprisingly, not in IL-17A-deficient recipients. We attested that IL-17A was not required for IL-2-mediated Treg expansion, intragraft recruitment or suppressive capacities. Instead, IL-17A prevented allograft rejection by inhibiting Th1 alloreactivity independently of Tregs. Indeed, T-bet expression of naive alloreactive CD4+ T cells and the subsequent Th1 immune response was significantly enhanced in IL-17A deficient mice. Our results illustrate for the first time a protective role of IL-17A in CD4+-mediated allograft rejection process. © 2013 Vokaer et al.