Résumé : A group of 30 acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) with the early pro-T phenotype CD7+ /cCD3+ /CD1- /CD3- /CD4- /CDS- were identified among 103 newly diagnosed ALL with T-lineage markers (T-ALL). Pro T-ALL was more often observed in adults, and showed a lower incidence of hyperleukocytosis than more mature T-ALL. Mediastinal masses and polar acid phosphate se positivity in blast cells were however observed with the same frequency in pro T-ALL and late T-ALL, and rearrangements of both T-cell receptor (TCR) beta and gamma genes were observed in half the pro T-ALL cases tested. The expression of CD34, DR, and myeloid (My) markers was significantly more frequent in pro T-ALL than in late T-ALL, and these three features were strongly linked. TCR gene rearrangements were two to three times more frequent in CD34- and My-pro T-ALL. However, both CD34+ and My+ pro T-ALL showed an incidence of mediastinal masses and polar acid phosphatase positivity similar to this observed in CD34- and My- cases. This supports the assumption that both types of ALL indeed are engaged in the T-lineage, and confirms intracytoplasmic cCD3 as the earliest marker for this lineage. Moreover, CD34 appears to persist up to an early stage of T-cell maturation, where the cells retain myeloid potentiality. Loss of CD34 correlates with TCR-beta gene rearrangement and definitive commitment to the T lineage. Event-free survival analysis suggested a poorer outcome for pro T-ALL in adult patients.