par Tackoen, Marie
Référence Revue médicale de Bruxelles, 33, 4, page (309-317)
Publication Publié, 2012-09
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Human milk is a complex biological fluid with thousands of components. The milk composition in the mammalian species is specific and adapted to the needs of the offspring. It contains macronutrients (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) and numerous biologically active substrates. Human milk not only covers the nutritional needs of the newborn but protects the baby against infection, inflammation and oxidative stress. It has immunomodulation properties and confers trophical protection to the intestinal mucosa. The newborn infant is particularly immature : innate immunity, adaptive immunity and intestinal immaturity. Human milk will offer this exogenous protective and immunomodulating source. The development of the composition of the intestinal microflora of the neonate will be Impacted by pre- and probiotic components of human milk. Current scientific knowledge of human milk properties highlights interdependency of the different components, ontogeny of the intestinal function, development of the mucosal Intestinal immune system, colonization by the intestinal microbiota and protection against pathogens. Quality of these interactions influences the newborn's short and long term health status. The promotion of breastfeeding with the support of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) program and labeling has been shown to have positive impact in public health.