par Mouraux, Thierry;Dorchy, Harry
Référence Revue médicale de Bruxelles, 31, 2 Suppl, page (S113-123)
Publication Publié, 2010
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is no longer a disease only of adults. In some American locations and populations, incidence and prevalence of T2D are much higher than those of type 1 diabetes, because of increased calorie and fat intake, and decreased exercise. The increasing prevalence of T2D in the United States has closely paralleled the increase in childhood obesity noted there, but now across the Western world. Besides obesity, the other youth risk factors for T2D are: ethnicity, family history, puberty, female, metabolic syndrome, acanthosis nigricans and polycystic ovary syndrome. Any feature or condition associated with insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia should alert to screen youth at increased risk for (pre)T2D. T2D should be differenciated from monogenic diabetes (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young or MODY). Treatment goals are to decrease weight and increase exercise, to normalize insulinemia, glycemia and HbA1c, to control hypertension and hyperlipidemia. The aim of the pharmacological therapy is to decrease insulin resistance, namely by metformin. Sometimes, insulin therapy is necessary.