Résumé : Undetectable HCV RNA at 12 weeks is the stopping rule recommended in HCV patients in whom previous treatment has failed. Whether earlier virological criteria may be useful for deciding treatment discontinuation remains subject of debate. The aim of this study was to identify, in HCV-1 non-responders and relapsers to IFN or Peg-IFN and ribavirin, the earliest and most accurate predictor of failure to respond to a new treatment combining Peg-IFN and ribavirin.