Résumé : The prevalence of penile cancer varies between 1.5 (industrialized countries) and 4.5 per 100,000 men (non-industrialized countries). Predominant histological subtype is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in 40-46% of cases: penile cancer is considered to behave as vulvar cancer. Non HPV related risk factors are lack of circumcision, phimosis, chronic inflammation, and smoking. The role of lichen sclerosus (LS) is unclear. Clinical diagnosis is difficult and treatment often mutilating. Preventive measures can be taken since the risk factors are known: the use of the prophylactic HPV vaccines may contribute. We measured the prevalence of HPV and LS in penile cancer in Belgium.