Résumé : A lot of studies published on the ten last years showed a decrease of fertility among HIV positive women. The present research aims to see if this decrease is linked to an ovarian failure, using AMH as principal marker of ovarian function. In this pilot study, 54 HIV-positive and 39 HIV-negative women were compared on the basis of their ovarian function, fecundity and possible ovarian failure. A blood sample was taken for hormonal titrations, HIV seropositivity, viral load and CD4 T cell count. An interview explored demographic characteristics, obstetrical and infectious history, and menstrual characteristics. This study was performed in Burkina Faso between January and February 2008. There is no significant difference after adjusting for age of AMH level between the two groups. However, in our study, 5.5% of HIV positive women had a premature menopause, which is a significant variation from the premature menopause rates of the African population, which is 1.4%. In conclusion, this study put the HIV impact on ovarian function into perspective but the high premature menopause rates could suggest an ovarian attack by the virus or the treatment.