Résumé : The Department of Nephrology of the Hospital Erasme, opened 25 years ago, is now performing, each year, 22,000 hemodialysis sessions, 800 patient-weeks of peritoneal dialysis treatment and 70 renal grafts. Scientific contributions of the department deal with vascular access for hemodialysis, susceptibility to infections of dialyzed patients, parathyroid surgery, biocompatibility of dialysis membranes, predictive factors of renal graft survival, immunosuppression with monoclonal antibodies, experimental studies of graft tolerance and rejection, toxic nephropathies. The most original contributions are related to anaphylactoïd reactions in hemodialysis by association of acrylonitrile membranes with inhibition of the converting enzyme, to advantages and side effects of OKT3 monoclonal antibody and to discovery and study of the Chinese herbs nephropathy.