Résumé : The data on patients participating in two randomized, prospective studies with similar immunosuppressive regimens were updated and combined to evaluate the long-term effects of OKT3 according to cold ischemia time (< or = or > 24 hr). Among 159 patients in the OKT3 and 153 in the cyclosporine A (CsA) group, 8 and 12 deaths occurred, respectively (P = NS). In patients with cold ischemia > 24 hours, OKT3 prophylaxis resulted in a lower mean number of rejection episodes per patient than did CsA prophylaxis within one year (mean +/- SEM: 0.87 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.35 +/- 0.14, respectively; P = 0.008) and within five years (1.07 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.49 +/- 0.15, respectively; P = 0.032). In contrast, rejection incidences in patients with cold ischemia < or = 24 hours was not significantly different in the two groups. In all study patients, there was a trend towards higher graft survival rates in the OKT3 group versus the CsA group (at 5 years, 73% vs. 66%, respectively; P = 0.182). Among recipients of kidneys with cold ischemia times > 24 hours, OKT3 patients had significantly higher graft survival than CsA patients at two years (84% vs. 64%, respectively) and at five years (71% vs. 56%, respectively; P = 0.045). Significant differences were not observed in recipients of kidneys with cold ischemia times < or = 24 hours. In conclusion, patients receiving renal grafts with long cold ischemia times strongly benefit from OKT3 prophylaxis.