Résumé : Endopeptidase 24.11 (EC enzymatic activity was spectrofluorimetrically measured in human urine, using a synthetic peptidic substrate. Urinary endopeptidase 24.11 output (Uendo) was determined in 24-hour urine samples of 10 kidney transplant recipients during the first 2 weeks after surgery. In 9 patients, a large increase in Uendo levels was noted during the 1st and/or the 2nd postoperative days (mean +/- SEM of peak Uendo 624 +/- 122 micrograms/24 h, p = 0.0003 as compared to 239 +/- 20 micrograms/24 h in a healthy control population). This occurred whether patients received OKT3 (n = 6) or cyclosporine A (n = 3) as primary immunosuppression. Uendo returned to normal between the 3rd and the 5th postoperative day. We conclude that renal transplantation is associated with an early and marked release of endopeptidase 24.11 in urine. This could be due to the potentially toxic effects of ischemia and/or immunosuppressive drugs on the proximal tubular epithelium. The clinical usefulness of urinary endopeptidase 24.11 as a marker of tubular injury remains to be assessed.