Résumé : This study aims at testing the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abilities at age 2years are related with local brain microstructure of preterm infants at term equivalent age. Forty-one preterm infants underwent brain MRI with diffusion tensor imaging sequences to measure mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), longitudinal and transverse diffusivity (λ// and λ⊥) at term equivalent age. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 2years corrected age using the Bayley III scale. A voxel-based analysis approach, statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), was used to correlate changes of the Bayley III scores with the regional distribution of MD, FA, λ// and λ⊥. We found that language abilities are negatively correlated to MD, λ// and λ⊥ in the left superior temporal gyrus in preterm infants. These findings suggest that higher MD, λ// and λ⊥ values at term-equivalent age in the left superior temporal gyrus are associated with poorer language scores in later childhood. Consequently, it highlights the key role of the left superior temporal gyrus for the development of language abilities in children. Further studies are needed to assess on an individual basis and on the long term the prognostic value of brain DTI at term equivalent age for the development of language.