Résumé : In solid tumors, cancer cells subjected to ischemic conditions trigger distinct signaling pathways contributing to angiogenic stimulation and tumor development. Characteristic features of tumor ischemia include hypoxia and glucose deprivation, leading to the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1-dependent signaling pathways and to complex signaling events known as the unfolded protein response. Here, we show that the activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor IRE1 is a common determinant linking hypoxia- and hypoglycemia-dependent responses to the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Tumor cells expressing a dominant-negative IRE1 transgene as well as Ire1alpha-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts were unable to trigger VEGF-A up-regulation upon either oxygen or glucose deprivation. These data correlated with a reduction of tumor angiogenesis and growth in vivo. Our results therefore suggest an essential role for IRE1-dependent signaling pathways in response to ischemia and identify this protein as a potential therapeutic target to control both the angiogenic switch and tumor development.