Résumé : Aim: The possible improvement of efficacy and tolerability of a 7-day dual antibiotherapy amoxicillin-clarithromycin (AC) on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis in children by the adjunction of omeprazole (OAC) was studied. Methods: Forty-six children presenting with H. pylori gastritis, assessed at inclusion by endoscopy, H. pylori urease test, histology and/or culture were randomised to a twice-daily regimen of AC or OAC. A 13C-urease breath test was performed 4-6 weeks after the end of the treatment period to evaluate H. pylori eradication. Results: A larger proportion of patients was H. pylori negative (69%) in the OAC regimen treatment 4-6 weeks after eradication treatment compared with those who received dual AC therapy (15%). A total of seven patients (three in the OAC and four in the AC group) reported adverse events (AEs). Only vomiting was reported in more than one patient (one in each treatment regimen) and only one AE was severe (urticaria: in the OAC group, but considered not related to treatment). Conclusion: A larger eradication rate of H. pylori was obtained in the triple OAC group than in the dual AC group. Both therapy regimens can be safely administered to children for 7 days. © 2006 The Author(s).