Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Main contribution of PET in the management of brain tumors is at the therapeutic level. Specific reasons explain this role of molecular imaging in the therapeutic management of brain tumors, especially gliomas. Gliomas are by nature infiltrating neoplasms and the interface between tumor and normal brain tissue may not be accurately defined on CT and MRI. Also, gliomas are often histologically heterogeneous with anaplastic areas evolving within a low-grade tumor, and the contrast-enhancement on CT or MRI does not represent a good marker for anaplastic tissue detection. Finally, assessment of tumor residue, recurrence or progression may be altered by different signals related to inflammation or adjuvant therapies, even on contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. These limitations of the conventional neuroimaging in delineating tumor and detecting anaplastic tissue lead to potential inaccuracy in lesion targeting at different steps of the management (diagnostic, surgical, and post-therapeutic stages). Molecular information provided by PET has proved helpful to supplement morphological imaging data in this context. 18F-FDG (FDG) and amino-acid tracers such as 11C-methionine (MET), provides complementary metabolic data that are independent from the anatomical MR information. These tracers help in the definition of glioma extension, in the detection of anaplastic areas and in the postoperative follow-up. Additionally, PET data have an independent prognostic value. To take advantage of PET data in glioma treatment, PET might be integrated in the planning of image-guided biopsies, radiosurgery and resection. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.