Résumé : Cerebellar mutism and subsequent dysarthria (MSD) is a possible complication of posterior fossa surgery. It is usually seen in children after resection of a cerebellar mass lesion. Most patients become mute after a period of (near)normal postoperative speech, and are dysarthric once speech resumes. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MSD are most probably multifactorial, combining neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and psychological factors. The aim of the present article is to better define the MSD syndrome. The cerebellum is not only involved in motor control. It is also part of a distributed neural circuitry which underlies higher cognitive functions such as, for instance, those associated with the programming of kinetic parameters before motor initiation of a movement. We hypothesize that it could also be involved in the mental initiation which precedes the programming of any intentional bucco-phonatory movements to be performed in order to express oneself.