Résumé : SummaryBackground and objectives In 2009, the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 accounted for worldwide recommendations about vaccination. There are few data concerning the immunogenicity or the security of the adjuvanted-A/H1N1 vaccine in transplanted and hemodialyzed patients.Design, setting, participants, & measurements Sera from 21 controls, 53 hemodialyzed (HD) patients, and 111 renal transplant recipients (RT) were sampled before (T0) and 1 month after (T1) a single dose of Pandemrix® vaccine (GSK Biologicals, AS03-adjuvanted). We measured the neutralizing antibodies against A/H1N1/2009, the geometric mean (GM) titers, the GM titer ratios (T1/T0) with 95% confidence intervals, and the seroconversion rate (responders: ≥4-fold increase in titer). The HLA and MICA immunization was determined by Luminex technology.Results The GM titer ratio was 38 (19 to 78), 9 (5 to 16), and 5 (3 to 6) for controls, HD patients, and RT patients, respectively (P < 0.001). The proportion of responders was 90%, 57%, and 44%, respectively (P < 0.001). In RT patients, the prevalence of histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class II, and MHC class I-related chain A immunization, was, respectively, 15%, 14%, and 14% before and 14%, 14%, and 11% after vaccination (P = 1, 1, and 0.39).Conclusions The influenza A/H1N1-adjuvanted vaccine is of limited efficacy but is safe in renal disease populations. The humoral response is lower in transplanted versus hemodialyzed patients. Further studies are needed to improve the efficacy of vaccination in those populations.