Résumé : The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, the toxicity and the efficiency of a BFM-like treatment protocol for acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) of children in which mitoxantrone was substituted for conventional anthracycline. The chemotherapy called for induction (mitoxantrone, cytosine arabinoside, etoposide), consolidation (mitoxantrone, cytosine arabinoside, 6 thioguanine), followed by two intensification courses with cytosine arabinoside plus, respectively, mitoxantrone during the first and etoposide during the second courses. Maintenance therapy consisted of daily 6 thioguanine, four-weekly courses of cytosine arabinoside (s.c. daily during 4 days) and eight-weekly courses of mitoxantrone. The latter drug was pursued up to a total cumulative dose of 150 mg/sqm. Maintenance therapy was stopped at 2 years of diagnosis. Out of 108 patients, 84 (77%) achieved a complete remission, 10 died during induction of hemorrhage, sepsis or pulmonary infiltration by leukemic cells. A total of 32 relapses occurred. The median follow-up was 3.5 years. Actuarial event-free survival, disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years as 41%, 52%, 56%, respectively. These results compare favorably with most reported data, and cytogenetic findings appear to be the most important prognostic factor.