Résumé : Severe primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are rare; their global incidence is comparable to that of childhood leukemia; they include more than 100 different entities. Clinical manifestations are: unusually severe or frequent infections or infections that do not respond to adequate treatment; an increased risk of certain malignancies; sometimes auto-immune manifestations. Delayed diagnosis and management of PID can lead to severe and irreversible complications or to death. PID can become manifest only in the adult; in common variable immune deficiency, the median age at diagnosis is between the 2nd and the 3rd decade of life. PID are often transmitted genetically; recent progresses in molecular biology have allowed more precise and earlier, including antenatal, diagnosis. Molecular treatment of 3 infants with a severe immunodeficiency has recently been achieved in April 2000. Those progresses were mostly based on the study of immunodeficiency databases. We present here the work of a Belgian group specialized in PID; meetings have started in June 1997. This group establishes guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PID, adapted to the local situation. The elaboration of a national register of PID is also underway; this has to provide all guaranties of anonymity to patients and families. Such a register already exists at the European level; it has provided the basis for new diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. The inclusion of Belgian data in this register should allow essential progresses essential for our patients.