Résumé : Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder involving the haemoglobin designated as haemoglobin S, an autosomic recessive hereditary disease. It is the most frequent hereditary disease in sub-Saharan Africa, however epidemiological studies performed with a systematic neonatal screening in Brussels and Liège have proven that more than one neonate over 2.000 has a sickle cell disease. If this amount is significant, at the level of each physician the number of patient-contacts will be weak. Another aspect of the disease is the variability in its expression: some patients suffer from multiple and chronic organ alterations while other suffer also from acute events which might lead to death if not treated appropriately. The poor experience of each physician, the lack of the disease knowledge by the population, the symptoms complexity, and the socio-economical aspects of sickle cell disease explain that it can be considered as an "exotic" disease but also as a public health problem. A global and dedicated approach of the patient as a whole must be implemented. This is the reason for the existence of the "Réseau des Hémoglobinopathies": http://www.redcellnet.be/.