Résumé : The heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens occurs both on heavy metal polluted soils (metallicolous ecotype MET) and on soils with normal heavy metal content (non-metallicolous ecotype: NMET). In order to assess the extent and structure of variation in growth, shoot accumulation of Cd, Zn and mineral element (Ca, Mg, K, Fe), a MET ecotype from Belgium and a NMET ecotype from Luxembourg were studied. Seven maternal families from two populations of each ecotype were grown on both Cd and Zn contaminated soil. Although both ecotypes presented a similar heavy metal tolerance in the experimental conditions tested, they differed in several points. The MET populations had markedly higher biomass and higher root:shoot ratio compared to NMET populations. The Zn, and at lesser extent, the Cd hyperaccumulation capacity tended to be higher in the NMET populations. The same trend was observed for the foliar concentrations of Mg, Ca and Fe with NMET populations having higher concentrations compared to MET ones. Cd and Zn concentrations were negatively correlated with the biomass of both ecotype. However, the negative correlation between the Zn and biomass was much lower in MET ecotype suggesting a tighter control of internal Zn concentration in this ecotype. Finally, although the Cd phytoextraction capacity was similar in both ecotype, a higher Zn phytoextraction capacity was detected in NMET ecotype when these plants grow on moderate Cd and Zn concentrations. © Springer 2005.