Résumé : In order to generate anchor points connecting the rat cytogenetic and genetic maps, the cytogenetic position of 62 rat markers (including 55 genes) already localized genetically was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Whenever possible, markers located near one end of the linkage groups were included. These new localizations allowed us to unambiguously orient the 20 autosomal and the X chromosome linkage groups. The position of the centromere in the linkage map could also be determined in the case of several metacentric chromosomes. In addition, the regional localization of 15 other rat genes was determined. These new data bring useful information with respect to comparative mapping with the mouse and the human and to mammalian evolution. They illustrate, for instance, that groups of genes can remain syntenic during mammalian evolution while being subjected to intrachromosomal rearrangements in some lineages (synteny is conserved while gene order is not). This analysis also disclosed cases of synteny conservation in one the two rodent species and the human, while the synteny is split in the other rodent species: such configurations are likely examples of lineage-specific interchromosomal rearrangements associated with speciation.