Résumé : This paper compares the fine-scale genetic structure of quantitative traits and allozyme markers within a natural population of Centaurea jacea s.l. To that end, a spatial autocorrelation approach is developed based on pairwise correlation coefficients between individuals and using sib families. Statistical properties of the proposed statistics are investigated with numerical simulations. Our results show that most quantitative traits have a significant spatial structure for their genetic component. On average, allozyme markers and the genetic component of quantitative traits have similar patterns of spatial autocorrelation that are consistent with a neutral model of isolation by distance. We also show evidence that environmental heterogeneity generates a spatial structure for the environmental component of quantitative traits. Results are discussed in terms of mechanisms generating spatial structure and are compared with those obtained on a large geographical scale.