Résumé : In this study, we analysed spatial genetic structure (SGS) patterns and estimated dispersal distances in Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C. Berg (Moraceae), a threatened wind-pollinated dioecious African tree, with typically low density (similar to 10 adults/km2). Eight microsatellite markers were used to type 287 individuals in four Cameroonian populations characterized by different habitats and tree densities. Differentiation among populations was very low. Two populations in more open habitat did not display any correlation between genetic relatedness and spatial distance between individuals, whereas significant SGS was detected in two populations situated under continuous forest cover. SGS was weak with a maximum S-p-statistic of 0.006, a value in the lower quartile of SGS estimates for trees in the literature. Using a stepwise approach with Bayesian clustering methods, we demonstrated that SGS resulted from isolation by distance and not colonization by different gene pools. Indirect estimates of gene dispersal distances ranged from sigma(g)