Résumé : The interaction of a number of positively charged anti-tumor drugs with cardiolipin-containing model membranes has been investigated using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and monolayer techniques. It appeared that the ellipticines used (i.e., celiptium and 2-N-methylellipticinium), and also ethidium bromide, completely blocked Ca2+-induced HII phase formation in pure cardiolipin liposomes at molar ratios of drug-to-lipid of approx. 1:1. For the anthracyclines adriamycin and 4'-epi-adriamycin, a similar effect was observed, but now a 2:1 ratio was required. 31P-NMR experiments on dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine/cardiolipin mixed liposomes indicated that the two anthracyclines, but not the other three drugs, were capable of inducing macroscopic phase separation into domains enriched in drug-cardiolipin complexes and domains enriched in the zwitterionic phospholipid species. DSC experiments on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/cardiolipin mixtures led, with the exception of 2-N-methylellipticinium, to the same conclusion. Measurements of surface pressure and surface potential of cardiolipin monolayers at the air/water interface as well as conformational analysis of the various drug-cardiolipin recombinants showed that the ellipticines are deeply embedded in the acyl chain region of the bilayer, while the anthracyclines and ethidium bromide are preferentially localized in the interface. All drugs share an important electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged phosphates of cardiolipin.