Résumé : The helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) belongs to the SWI/SNF family of proteins that use the energy from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis to remodel chromatin during a variety of cellular processes. HLTF is also involved in DNA repair. Using computer-assisted microscopy, the immunohistochemical expression of HLTF was determined using a series of 100 hypopharyngeal and 56 laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) compared to tumor-free epithelia (60 cases) and dysplasias (92 cases). In hypopharyngeal SCC tumor progression, increased HLTF expression was associated with the percentage of immunopositive epithelial tissue areas (p = 0.02) and the staining intensity of the positive area (p = 0.0005). In the cases of laryngeal lesions, the immunolabeling intensity of HLTF significantly decreased with malignancy (p = 0.01). We also observed a significant shift of HLTF expression from the cytoplasm toward the nuclear compartment (p = 0.0007). Our data reveal an association between the presence of HLTF and neoplastic progression of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal SCCs.