par Bersini, Hugues ;Sener, Pierre
Référence Neural networks, 15, 10, page (1197-1204)
Publication Publié, 2002-12
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : In a previous paper we introduced the notion of frustrated chaos occurring in Hopfield networks [Neural Networks 11 (1998) 1017]. It is a dynamical regime which appears in a network when the global structure is such that local connectivity patterns responsible for stable oscillatory behaviors are intertwined, leading to mutually competing attractors and unpredictable itinerancy among brief appearance of these attractors. Frustration destabilizes the network and provokes an erratic 'wavering' among the orbits that characterize the same network when it is connected in a non-frustrated way. In this paper, through a detailed study of the bifurcation diagram given for some connection weights, we will show that this frustrated chaos belongs to the family of intermittency type of chaos, first described by Berge et al. [Order within chaos (1984)] and Pomeau and Manneville [Commun. Math. Phys. 74 (1980) 189]. Indeed, the transition to chaos is a critical one, and all along the bifurcation diagram, in any chaotic window, the duration of the intermittent cycles, between two chaotic bursts, grows as an invert ratio of the connection weight. Specific to this regime are the intermittent cycles easily identifiable as the non-frustrated regimes obtained by altering the values of these same connection weights. We will more specifically show that anywhere in the bifurcation diagram, a chaotic window always lies between two oscillatory regimes, and that the resulting chaos is a merging of, among others, the cycles at both ends. The strength (i.e. the duration of its oscillatory phase before the chaotic burst) of the first cycle decreases while the regime tends to stabilize into the second cycle (with the strength of this second cycle increasing) that will finally get the control. Since in our study, the bifurcation diagram concerns the same connection weights responsible for the learning mechanism of the Hopfield network, we will discuss the relations existing between bifurcation, learning and control of chaos. We will show that, in some cases, the addition of a slower Hebbian learning mechanism onto the Hopfield networks makes the resulting global dynamics to drive the network into a stable oscillatory regime, through a succession of intermittent and quasiperiodic regimes. Finally, we will present a series of possible logical steps to manually construct a frustrated network. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.