Résumé : The combination of BCG with killed Leishmania promastigotes, demonstrated to be efficient in the cure of patients suffering American cutaneous leishmaniasis and in the induction of a long-term immune response in healthy vaccinated volunteers, was tested in BALB/c mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison to BCG or Leishmania alone, and a vehicle (PBS) control. BCG-Leishmania vaccination, applied intra-peritoneally 10 and 3 days before T. cruzi trypomastigote inoculation, prolonged the survival, and reduced blood parasitaemia of infected animals. Proliferation studies indicated that splenocytes of mice vaccinated with BCG-Leishmania and harvested in the acute phase of T. cruzi infection displayed stimulation indices higher than cells from PBS-treated mice when stimulated with PHA mitogen, PPD, Leishmania or T. cruzi antigens. Injections of a monoclonal antibody able to neutralise IFN-gamma into BCG-Leishmania vaccinated mice increased parasitaemia to levels similar to those of control animals (treated with PBS) and reversed the beneficial effect of vaccination on the proliferative response to T. cruzi antigen. These results show that vaccination of mice with BCG plus killed Leishmania promastigotes delayed acute T. cruzi infection, stimulated a T-cell response to T. cruzi antigen and promoted IFN-gamma production.