Résumé : Genetic exchange may occur between two particular Trypanosoma brucei clones simultaneously transmitted by the same tsetse fly. We report here that this exchange takes place in the fly, through nuclear fusion. The resulting hybrids appear to be sub-tetraploid, some particular DNA sequences from one of the parental stocks being lost before enough cloned hybrid trypanosomes could be harvested for DNA analysis. A further reduction of the DNA content of these hybrids occurs gradually upon growth and yields near diploid value in a major part of the population. This mode of hybrid generation is different from the fusion of haploid gametes, which is thought to occur normally upon inoculation of metacyclic trypanosomes in their mammalian host. In this respect, the sub-tetraploid hybrids appear to undergo meiosis in the fly, generating sub-diploid metacyclic forms, then fusion in the mammalian blood.