Résumé : C57BL/6 mice injected with the 145-2C11 anti-CD3 mAb and grafted with MHC class II disparate bm12 skin develop a chronic rejection characterized by interstitial dermal fibrosis, a marked eosinophil infiltrate, and an obliterative intimal vasculopathy. Because these changes occur in the absence of alloreactive antibodies, we examined the contribution of cytokines in their pathogenesis. Chronically rejected grafts showed a marked accumulation of both IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Mixed lymphocyte reaction experiments established that mice undergoing chronic rejection were primed for IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 secretion. In vivo administration of anti-IL-4 mAb completely prevented allograft vasculopathy as well as graft eosinophil infiltration and dermal fibrosis. Injection of anti-IL-5 mAb or the use of IL-5-deficient mice as recipients also resulted in the lack of eosinophil infiltration or dermal fibrosis, but these mice did develop allograft vasculopathy. Administration of anti-IL-10 mAb did not influence any histologic parameter of chronic rejection. Thus, in this model, IL-4- and IL-5-mediated tissue allograft eosinophil infiltration is associated with interstitial fibrosis. IL-4, but not eosinophils, is also required for the development of obliterative graft arteriolopathy.