Résumé : The authors investigated brain glucose utilization using positron emission tomography (PET) in 12 normal volunteers and 12 unipolar unmedicated depressed patients (six endogenous; six nonendogenous) following injection of [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG). Compared by analyses of variance, absolute and relative regional glucose metabolic rates appeared different in depressed patients and control subjects, especially in parietal and frontal lobes. In patients with unipolar depression, metabolic rates were increased in the orbital part of the frontal lobe and decreased in a frontal dorsolateral area. The metabolic supero-basal gradient calculated in the frontal cortex was significantly lower in depressed patients than in normal subjects. Decreased glucose metabolism was also observed in the parietal cortex of depressed patients. No differences in glucose metabolic rates have been detected between endogenous and nonendogenous patients. No correlation has been found between the metabolic data and the Hamilton Rating Scale.