Résumé : Bacterial regrowth in drinking water distribution systems is a source of concern since it could result in non-compliance with water quality regulations, taste and odor problems, and may be associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal illnesses. Bacterial regrowth is dependent on several factors, including the amount of substrate available for growth, such as biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), oxidant residuals and the presence of corrosion. To investigate the impact of nutrients levels and oxidant residual maintenance, a full-scale investigation of two distribution systems was completed. This study presents data obtained from two distribution systems (DS) fed by different treatment trains: one DS has low BDOC concentrations and no free oxidant residual (St. Rose plant, Quebec, Canada), and the other has a high BDOC concentration and moderate concentrations of free oxidant residual (Pont Viau plant, Quebec, Canada). Monitoring included heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), total direct count by epifluorescence after acridine orange staining (AODC), direct viable counts (DVC-CTC method) and the measurement of bacterial production by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Results show that bacterial biomass (AODC and DVC) and bacterial production are lower in the DS fed by the treatment plant with a low BDOC concentration in the plant effluent. This difference is observed in warm water but not in cold water. The results suggest that HPCs are not a good indicator of bacterial regrowth in DSs. Finally, statistical analysis demonstrated that the treatment type and cumulative surface to volume ratio are the significant factors affecting regrowth in the distribution systems studied in warm waters.