Résumé : This paper uses a unique database from a leading microfinance rating agency to assess the impact of management on the functioning of microfinance institutions (MFIs). It focuses on MFIs’ financial performance, and on the level of subsidies received. The results show that the management skills are associated to the financial performances. The technical, organisational and communication competences of the top managers seem to play a key role among the four management dimensions analysed by the rating agency. Furthermore, the level of subsidies granted has a very limited impact on management quality. Results show that the well-managed MFIs are not significantly older or active in corrupted countries.