Résumé : The biological factors responsible for the increased aggressiveness in atypical meningiomas are not well known. The aim of this study is to evaluate the discriminatory value of a number of biological markers (S100 proteins and galectin-3 and its ligand profile) with respect to benign and atypical meningiomas. Using 63 meningiomas (39 benign and 24 atypical), we performed a semi-quantitative histochemical analysis of both the expression of galectin-3 and its ligand profile and the Ca2+-binding proteins S100A5, S100A6 and S100B. Three features were considered for each marker, namely the labeling index (LI), the staining intensity (SI) and the global score (LI + SI). A low S100A6 labeling index was observed in 51% of the benign and 25% of the atypical meningiomas (P=0.035). Furthermore, high S100B scores were observed in 46% of the benign and in only 8% of the atypical meningiomas (P=0.001). Seventy-one percent of the atypical meningiomas exhibited a low level of staining intensity for the galectin-3-binding sites as compared to only 36% of the benign meningiomas (P=0.007). The combination of these three markers (by means of a decision tree) enabled an improved discriminatory criterion to be established between the benign and the atypical meningiomas. Our results thus suggest that the galectin-3-binding sites and S100B (and S100A6 to a lesser extent) could play a role in the aggressiveness characterizing atypical meningiomas.