Résumé : Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) and its receptor G protein-coupled receptor 10 (GPR10) are expressed in brain areas involved in the processing of nociceptive signals. We investigated the role of this new neuropeptidergic system in GPR10-knockout mice. These mice had higher nociceptive thresholds and stronger stress-induced analgesia than wild-type mice, differences that were suppressed by naloxone treatment. In addition, potentiation of morphine-induced antinociception and reduction of morphine tolerance were observed in mutants. Intracerebroventricular administration of PrRP in wild-type mice promoted hyperalgesia and reversed morphine-induced antinociception. PrRP administration had no effect on GPR10-mutant mice, showing that its effects are mediated by GPR10. Anti-opioid effects of neuropeptide FF were found to require a functional PrRP-GPR10 system. Finally, GPR10 deficiency enhanced the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and decreased the severity of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome. Altogether, our data identify the PrRP-GPR10 system as a new and potent negative modulator of the opioid system.