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Résumé : The Free Electron Laser (FEL) regime is investigated long after saturation using the Colson-Bonifacio model. This regime is actually an out-of-equilibrium metastable state, which slowly relaxes toward thermodynamical equilibrium. This specific dynamics is characterized by a strong regularity, unexpected for an interaction between waves and large number of particles, as well as by low-dimensional phase-space structures in the electron-beam phase space. In this context, the switch from regimes associated to high gain (for small electron-beam energy spread) or very low gain (for large energy spread) is interpreted as out-of-equilibrium phase transitions, a phenomenon which was recently described by a mechanism of entropy maximization.