Résumé : Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique based on a combination of the principles of optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy with line-field illumination, which can generate cell-resolved images of the skin in vivo. This article reports on the LC-OCT technique and its application in dermatology. The principle of the technique is described, and the latest technological innovations are presented. The technology has been miniaturized to fit within an ergonomic handheld probe, allowing for the easy access of any skin area on the body. The performance of the LC-OCT device in terms of resolution, field of view, and acquisition speed is reported. The use of LC-OCT in dermatology for the non-invasive detection, characterization, and therapeutic follow-up of various skin pathologies is discussed. Benign and malignant melanocytic lesions, non-melanocytic skin tumors, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, and inflammatory and infectious skin conditions are considered. Dedicated deep learning algorithms have been developed for assisting in the analysis of LC-OCT images of skin lesions.