Résumé : Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 were developed during the pandemic including the BNT162b2 and the mRNA-1273. We evaluated the levels of binding antibodies against the receptor binding domain and the levels of NAbs in individuals who developed a breakthrough infection after having received three doses of mRNA-1273. A total of 51 participants were included. The breakthrough group was compared to a 1:1 matched-control group. Among the 51 individuals, 18 (35%) developed a breakthrough infection. The GMT of NAbs against the BA.1 in the BK population was 278.1 (95%CI: 168.1–324.1). This titer was significantly lower compared to the matched-control group when considering all data (GMT = 477.4; 95%CI: 316.2–541.0; p = 0.0057). Results were similar for the BA.5 (GMT = 152.0 (95%CI: 76.9–172.9) for breakthrough and 262.0 (95%CI: 171.3–301.8) for control (p = 0.0043)). Our study found that individuals receiving the mRNA-1273 booster and who developed a breakthrough infection presented lower levels of binding antibodies and NAbs before the infection as compared to a matched-control group.