Résumé : Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a core driver of cardiovascular diseases (CVD); however, to date, gender differences in MetS prevalence and its components have not been assessed in the Algerian adult general population. This study aimed to determine the gender differences in MetS prevalence and its components, in the general population of Algeria. Secondary analysis was performed on data from the Algerian 2016–2017 non-communicable disease risk factor survey. MetS was determined according to the harmonized Joint Interim Statement criteria. A Poisson regression model based on Generalised Estimating Equations was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for the sex-specific factors associated with MetS. Overall, the prevalence of MetS was 34.0% (95% CI 32.4–35.6). MetS prevalence in women and men was 39.1% (95% CI 37.0–41.3) and 29.1% (95% CI 27.2–31.2), respectively. The most frequent triad was the clustering of abdominal obesity with low HDL-cholesterol and high blood pressure among women (8.9%; 95% CI [8.0–10.0]) and low HDL-cholesterol with high blood pressure and hyperglycaemia among men (5.2%; 95% CI [4.3–6.3]). Increasing age (aPR 3.21 [2.35–4.39] in men and aPR 3.47 [2.86–4.22] in women), cohabitation (aPR 1.14 [1.05–1.24]), women residing in urban areas (aPR 1.13 [1.01–1.26]), men with higher educational levels (aPR 1.39 [1.14–1.70]), and men with insufficient physical activity (aPR 1.16 [1.05–1.30]) were associated with higher risk of MetS. In this population-based study, one in three Algerian adults had MetS, and key components including abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, and high blood pressure, are very common, especially in women. Reinforcing interventions for weight management targeting married women living in urban areas and improving sufficient physical activity in men with higher socioeconomic status could provide maximal health gains and stem the CVD epidemic in Algeria.