par Lemenkova, Polina
Référence Analytics, 2, 3, page (745-780)
Publication Publié, 2023-09-21
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : This paper presents the object detection algorithms GRASS GIS applied for Landsat 8-9 OLI/TIRS data. The study area includes the Sudd wetlands located in South Sudan. This study describes a programming method for the automated processing of satellite images for environmental analytics, applying the scripting algorithms of GRASS GIS. This study documents how the land cover changed and developed over time in South Sudan with varying climate and environmental settings, indicating the variations in landscape patterns. A set of modules was used to process satellite images by scripting language. It streamlines the geospatial processing tasks. The functionality of the modules of GRASS GIS to image processing is called within scripts as subprocesses which automate operations. The cutting-edge tools of GRASS GIS present a cost-effective solution to remote sensing data modelling and analysis. This is based on the discrimination of the spectral reflectance of pixels on the raster scenes. Scripting algorithms of remote sensing data processing based on the GRASS GIS syntax are run from the terminal, enabling to pass commands to the module. This ensures the automation and high speed of image processing. The algorithm challenge is that landscape patterns differ substantially, and there are nonlinear dynamics in land cover types due to environmental factors and climate effects. Time series analysis of several multispectral images demonstrated changes in land cover types over the study area of the Sudd, South Sudan affected by environmental degradation of landscapes. The map is generated for each Landsat image from 2015 to 2023 using 481 maximum-likelihood discriminant analysis approaches of classification. The methodology includes image segmentation by ‘i.segment’ module, image clustering and classification by ‘i.cluster’ and ‘i.maxlike’ modules, accuracy assessment by ‘r.kappa’ module, and computing NDVI and cartographic mapping implemented using GRASS GIS. The benefits of object detection techniques for image analysis are demonstrated with the reported effects of various threshold levels of segmentation. The segmentation was performed 371 times with 90% of the threshold and minsize = 5; the process was converged in 37 to 41 iterations. The following segments are defined for images: 4515 for 2015, 4813 for 2016, 4114 for 2017, 5090 for 2018, 6021 for 2019, 3187 for 2020, 2445 for 2022, and 5181 for 2023. The percent convergence is 98% for the processed images. Detecting variations in land cover patterns is possible using spaceborne datasets and advanced applications of scripting algorithms. The implications of cartographic approach for environmental landscape analysis are discussed. The algorithm for image processing is based on a set of GRASS GIS wrapper functions for automated image classification.