Article révisé par les pairs
|The mechanical response of woven composites under off-axis tensile loading is strongly affected by the damage mechanism in the yarn-yarn and yarn-matrix interfaces. Due to damage in these interfaces, the yarns will be able to rotate and reorient. For plain weave and satin weaving schemes, the yarns will reorient toward the loading direction in off-axis tensile loading, resulting an increase in the apparent stiffness. The material model used to simulate the reinforcing yarns needs to handle this property as the material axis corresponding to the fiber direction should be updated during loading to reach realistic results. The key ingredient of a material model required to achieve this is a fiber frame stress rate description (Badel et al., 2008), which will be compared with a hyperelastic model (Bonet and Burton, 1998). The definition of the fiber frame is reformulated to properly conform to woven composites and the implementation of the model is extended for an implicit solver. Simulations are performed in ABAQUS/Standard with models implemented in UMAT routines. The results are compared with the standard ABAQUS implementation and are shown to retrieve a realistic stiffness evolution induced by fibre reorientations.