Résumé : Abstract Background Intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) can be used to treat early breast cancer during the conservative surgery thus enabling shorter overall treatment times and reduced irradiation of organs at risk. We report on our first 996 patients enrolled prospectively in a registry trial. Methods At Jules Bordet Institute, from February 2010 onwards, patients underwent partial IOERT of the breast. Women with unifocal invasive ductal carcinoma, aged 40 years or older, with a clinical tumour size ≤ 20 mm and tumour-free sentinel lymph node (on frozen section and immunohistochemical analysis). A 21 Gy dose was prescribed on the 90% isodose line in the tumour bed with the energy of 6 to 12 MeV (Mobetron®-IntraOp Medical). Results Thirty-seven ipsilateral tumour relapses occurred. Sixteen of those were in the same breast quadrant. Sixty patients died, and among those, 12 deaths were due to breast cancer. With 71.9 months of median follow-up, the 5-year Kaplan–Meier estimate of local recurrence was 2.7%. Conclusions The rate of breast cancer local recurrence after IOERT is low and comparable to published results for IORT and APBI. IOERT is highly operator-dependent, and appropriate applicator sizing according to tumour size is critical. When used in a selected patient population, IOERT achieves a good balance between tumour control and late radiotherapy-mediated toxicity morbidity and mortality thanks to insignificant irradiation of organs at risk.