Résumé : Radiotherapy is part of the standard of care treatment for a great majority of cancer patients. As a result of radiation, both tumor cells and the environment around them are affected directly by radiation, which mainly primes but also might limit the immune response. Multiple immune factors play a role in cancer progression and response to radiotherapy, including the immune tumor microenvironment and systemic immunity referred to as the immune landscape. A heterogeneous tumor microenvironment and the varying patient characteristics complicate the dynamic relationship between radiotherapy and this immune landscape. In this review, we will present the current overview of the immunological landscape in relation to radiotherapy in order to provide insight and encourage research to further improve cancer treatment. An investigation into the impact of radiation therapy on the immune landscape showed in several cancers a common pattern of immunological responses after radiation. Radiation leads to an upsurge in infiltrating T lymphocytes and the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) which can hint at a benefit for the patient when combined with immunotherapy. In spite of this, lymphopenia in the tumor microenvironment of ‘cold’ tumors or caused by radiation is considered to be an important obstacle to the patient’s survival. In several cancers, a rise in the immunosuppressive populations is seen after radiation, mainly pro-tumoral M2 macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). As a final point, we will highlight how the radiation parameters themselves can influence the immune system and, therefore, be exploited to the advantage of the patient.