Résumé : Background and Objectives: The use of closed-circuit rebreathers (CCRs) in recreational diving is gaining interest. However, data regarding its physiological effects are still scarce. Immersion, cold water, hyperoxia, exercise or the equipment itself could challenge the cardiopulmonary system. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of CCR diving on lung function and autonomous cardiac activity after a series of CCR dives in cold water. Materials and Methods: Eight CCR divers performed a diving trip (one week) in the Baltic Sea. Spirometry parameters, SpO2, and the lung ultrasonography score (LUS) associated with hydration monitoring by bioelectrical impedance were assessed at the end of the week. Heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded during the dives. Results: No diver declared pulmonary symptoms. The LUS increased after dives combined with a slight non-pathological decrease in SpO2. Spirometry was not altered, and all body water compartments were increased. Global HRV decreased during diving with a predominant increase in sympathetic tone while the parasympathetic tone decreased. All parameters returned to baseline 24 h after the last dive. Conclusions: The lung aeration disorders observed seem to be transient and not associated with functional spirometry alteration. The HRV dynamics highlighted physiological constraints during the dive as well as environmental-stress-related stimulation that may influence pulmonary changes. The impact of these impairments is unknown but should be taken into account, especially when considering long and repetitive CCR dives.