Résumé : Since the establishment of the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF) a century ago, in 1920, around four thousand Belgian and one thousand American scholars have been granted a fellowship to study, teach, or conduct research on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean. Drawing on new archive material, this book reveals the great significance of the BAEF as an institution of transatlantic cultural diplomacy. It also shows the BAEF’s crucial role in the development of international scientific exchange and its contribution to the Americanization of the academic landscape. It furthermore demonstrates how the fellowship program of the foundation contributed to a scientific culture in which individual excellence was considered increasingly important. The acquisition of international experience became in this process an essential element of career advancement in science, public service, and other professional fields