Résumé : Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer with limited therapeutic options. We evaluated the impact of CDK4/6 inhibition by palbociclib in 28 MPM cell lines including 19 patient-derived ones, using various approaches including RNA-sequencing. Palbociclib strongly and durably inhibited the proliferation of 23 cell lines, indicating a unique sensitivity of MPM to CDK4/6 inhibition. When observed, insensitivity to palbociclib was mostly explained by the lack of active T172-phosphorylated CDK4. This was associated with high p16INK4A (CDKN2A) levels that accompany RB1 defects or inactivation, or (unexpectedly) CCNE1 overexpression in the presence of wild-type RB1. Prolonged palbociclib treatment irreversibly inhibited proliferation despite re-induction of cell cycle genes upon drug washout. A senescence-associated secretory phenotype including various potentially immunogenic components was irreversibly induced. Phosphorylated CDK4 was detected in 80% of 47 MPMs indicating their sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors. Its absence in some highly proliferative MPMs was linked to very high p16 (CDKN2A) expression, which was also observed in public datasets in tumors from short survival patients. Our study supports the evaluation of CDK4/6 inhibitors for MPM treatment, in monotherapy or combination therapy.