Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : The brain is essential to human adaptation to any environment including space. We examined astronauts’ brain function through their electrical EEG brain potential responses related to their decision of executing a docking task in the same virtual scenario in Weightlessness and on Earth before and after the space stay of 6 months duration. Astronauts exhibited a P300 component in which amplitude decreased during, and recovered after, their microgravity stay. This effect is discussed as a post-value-based decision-making closing mechanism; The P300 amplitude decrease in weightlessness is suggested as an emotional stimuli valence reweighting during which orbitofrontal BA10 would play a major role. Additionally, when differentiating the bad and the good docks on Earth and in Weightlessness and keeping in mind that astronauts were instantaneously informed through a visual cue of their good or bad performance, it was observed that the good dockings resulted in earlier voltage redistribution over the scalp (in the 150–250 ms period after the docking) than the bad dockings (in the 250–400 ms) in Weightlessness. These results suggest that in Weightlessness the knowledge of positive or negative valence events is processed differently than on Earth.