Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : The risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) arises from the interaction of prenatal factors; epigenetic regulation; neonatal factors; and factors that affect childhood and adolescence, such as early adiposity rebound (AR) and social and environmental influences. Thus, CVD risk varies between the group of low-risk metabolically healthy normal-weight subjects (MHNW); the intermediate-risk group, which includes metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy normal-weight subjects (MUHNW); and the high-risk group of metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) subjects. In this continuum, several risk factors come into play and contribute to endothelial damage, vascular and myocardial remodeling, and atherosclerotic processes. These pathologies can occur both in prenatal life and in early childhood and contribute to significantly increasing CVD risk in young adults over time. Early intervention in the pediatric MUHO population to reduce the CVD risk during adulthood remains a challenge. In this review, we focus on CVD risk factors arising at different stages of life by performing a search of the recent literature. It is urgent to focus on preventive or early therapeutic strategies to stop this disturbing negative metabolic trend, which manifests as a continuum from prenatal life to adulthood.