Résumé : This paper presents a provably convergent battery estimation scheme based on a single particle model with electrolyte dynamics (SPMe), by proposing a systematic methodology to estimate critical information such as electrode-level states, electrolyte dynamics, and cyclable lithium. Electrode-level state estimation suffers from weak observability originating from two standalone electrode dynamics, which is then aggravated by the addition of electrolyte dynamics. This lack of observability can be alleviated by exploiting lithium inventory conservation enabled by Kalman decomposition, allowing one to separate out the unobservable subspace. Assuming the knowledge of cyclable lithium, a nonlinear state observer with provable convergence can be constructed for the SPMe model, using voltage and current measurements. To relax this strong assumption, a sensitivity-based parameter estimation scheme is also deployed to track cyclable lithium – a crucial physical variable for capacity fade. Ultimately, the estimation framework can perform finer monitoring and diagnosis of battery charge and health down to the level of individual electrode and the electrolyte. Experimental validation demonstrates <1% estimation error for cyclable lithium inventory. Solid phase lithium concentration estimates, especially in the negative electrode, can be sensitive to disturbances in cyclable lithium.